This was apparent in ethnographer M. Conducting field work in a suburb of New York City in the late s, Baumgartner was interested in exploring how people handled conflict in their town. What she found was a culture of tolerance and avoidance. Other scholars extended this theme in exploring fear and privatism in suburbia, characterized in the extreme by the rise of privatized, gated neighborhoods. One study of Pasadena, California, over this time period found that racial integration in the s had variable effects on community engagement among suburbanites, pushing some whites into their own insular social communities, reorienting the nature and purpose of local clubs and organization as they saw their numbers decline, and creating some pockets of multiracial social vibrancy.
At the same time some suburbanites were retreating, others created new cultures and lifeways in the suburbs. Scholarship on ethnic suburbia, in particular, documented this from several angles. Anthropologist Sarah Mahler investigated the lives of working-poor Salvadoran immigrants living in substandard housing in Long Island, New York. The enormous economic pressures they faced, from the challenge to survive on low wages while also supporting families in El Salvador, altered the social dynamic in the Salvadoran community, away from co-ethnic reciprocity toward more individualistic survival.
Groups like the Boy Scouts reflected this multiethnic sensibility, which in turn stimulated high levels of participation both by boys and their parents. Figure 5. Suburban childhood, Figure 6. Suburban strip in Tukwila, Washington, Figure 7. In contrast to older sociological models that considered the suburbs a site of Americanization, ethnoburbs reinforced and sustained ethnicity within suburbia see Figures 5 — 7. In ethnic suburbs, some residents forged new suburban ideals around such values as robust public life, defying long-standing suburban traditions of privatism.
For example, Thai residents of the east San Fernando Valley, California, held lively weekend food festivals at the Wat Thai Buddhist Temple, a quasi-public community space. Asian-Indian residents of Woodbridge, New Jersey, celebrated days-long Navrati festivals under enormous tents, with music, dancing, and vendors selling traditional Indian food and dress. Along Whittier Boulevard—which traversed the suburbs of Montebello, Pico Rivera, and Whittier, outside of Los Angeles, Mexican-American youth developed a cruising culture tied to the use of suburban public space. Suburban politics after came to reflect these differences as well, revealing political leanings as varied as suburbanites themselves.
One powerful strand worked to sustain suburban privilege. The solid tradition of tax-averse homeowner politics remained strong, and in the post-civil rights era, white suburbanites, especially, increasingly deployed a discourse of colorblind meritocratic individualism to defend their rights, claiming that suburbs were open equally to all and race and class played no role in who lived where.
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Suburban citizens framed these efforts in terms of their hard-earned rights as taxpaying homeowners, which they felt were under siege by free-spending liberals, minorities, the urban poor, inefficient government, and even drug pushers. This political agenda manifested in several ways. One was a full-fledged tax revolt movement. In , California taxpayers resoundingly passed Proposition 13, a measure that placed severe limits on property tax rates.
This campaign led the way for similar tax revolts in other states and helped propel former California governor, Ronald Reagan, a fervent supporter of Prop 13, to the White House in Reagan embraced many of the core principles of this campaign—cutting taxes and government power—suggesting the national resonance of suburban political ideals.
Across the country, suburbanites mobilized against busing for school integration, open housing, affordable housing, and Section 8 tenants. During the Richard Nixon presidency, for instance, the Federal government limited its support for fair housing, metropolitan school integration, and the dispersal of affordable housing. In the wake of civil rights laws that broke down explicit racial barriers in the housing market, suburban exclusion increasingly pivoted on class, fueling class segregation since While housing and civil rights activists recognized this trend as early as the s, it intensified over the following decades.
These local initiatives were pushed not only by whites, but also some affluent Asian Americans who recognized value in suburban exclusivity. By harnessing the power of local government, suburbanites maintained exclusionary practices using new tools and approaches. This suburban outlook continued to influence the political parties and their agendas at the national level. For the Democrats, this adjustment was enormous, forcing the party to recalibrate its traditional commitment to the urban poor, minorities, and labor and their demand for public programs , with a new commitment to middle-class suburban voters and their aversion to taxes and social welfare spending, and their reluctance to imperil their own property values.
Parallel to this suburban politics of defensive self-interest, a contrasting strand of progressive, social justice politics grew in the suburbs, particularly those experiencing ethno-racial change. It focused on Maywood, California, southeast of Los Angeles, a suburb of working-class Latino immigrants including the undocumented who claimed rights by virtue of inhabitance in particular places. The cumulative effects of suburban expansion since ranged from the toll on the environment, to the fiscal drain on both cities and outer suburbs, to the stubborn persistence of class and race segregation, to the everyday burdens of long commutes and social isolation and stimulated a wave of reform.
Initiatives were wide ranging, some winning more public favor than others. All of these efforts sought to mitigate the effects of suburban sprawl through more equitable, diverse, and sustainable forms of metropolitan development. Some of these initiatives stemmed from the growing recognition that metropolitan areas had become the drivers of the national—and global—economy.
Scholars like Bruce Katz, Mark Muro, and Jennifer Bradley argue that the stakes are high when it comes to metropolitan well-being because they compete against other global metropolises in a race for capital and investment. Because the national economy hinges on vibrant, high-functioning metros, they contend, the federal government must reorient its economic development policies toward enhancing their power and resources e.
Other regional reformers extend this logic, arguing that metro-wide equity is crucial to metropolitan health and competitiveness in the global marketplace. Recognizing the negative effects of suburban political balkanization, which gives individual suburban municipalities the powers to act in their own narrow self-interest and veto wider social obligations, these reformers sought ways to overcome this suburban intransigence. They crafted programs that operated on a regional scale and emphasized the mutual benefits to all metropolitan players, suburban and urban alike, with regional equity and prosperity as the intertwined end goals.
Urban analysts such as David Rusk, Myron Orfield, Peter Dreier, Manuel Pastor, and Chris Benner argued that metropolitan regions work best when class disparities are lessened, poverty is reduced, and communities across the board share both the benefits like jobs and obligations like affordable housing of metropolitan citizenship. A number of recent studies have indicated that problem-ridden cities and declining suburbs go hand in hand.
In other words, suburban islands of prosperity cannot exist in a sea of poverty. For the good of all metropolitan players e. One plan to level the metropolitan playing field was proposed by legislator and legal scholar Myron Orfield, based on initiatives he spearheaded in Minneapolis—St. Paul during his term in the Minnesota State Legislature — All suburbs, he argued, served to benefit from greater regional equity.
To achieve this, he called for regional tax-base sharing that would lessen wasteful competition among suburbs and gradually equalize their resources, provide regionally coordinated planning of housing and infrastructure, and facilitate the formation of strong, accountable regional governing bodies. Seeking to stop the relentless push of outward sprawl, it supports higher-density, mixed-use developments closer to existing communities and job centers, metro growth boundaries, the preservation of open space for parks, farmland, and native habitat, and in-fill projects.
The rationale is to move away from wasteful and environmentally draining sprawl toward denser, more environmentally sustainable development. Other regions followed with similar legislation, including Minneapolis—St. Figure 8. It is a transit-oriented development that combines apartments including 15 percent affordable units , retail, restaurants, and a plaza, all adjacent to a Metro station. An influential off-shoot of Smart Growth is New Urbanism, a movement of designers, architects, developers, and planners which coalesced in the late s. Smart Growth and New Urbanism are not without their critics.
Some decry their tendency to promote gentrification, drive housing prices upward, and insufficiently provide for low-income residents. Because Smart Growth often limits the amount of developable land, it tends to help established homeowners by driving up their property values, while locking everyone else out. Smart Growth pioneer Portland, Oregon, for example, landed at the top of recent lists on metro areas with accelerating gentrification. Ringed by strict growth boundaries, the city became denser and housing prices and rents spiked, fueling gentrification.
The trend hit the African American community especially hard. In recent years, the suburbs came under a new round of criticism, this time perhaps the harshest yet. The alarm was justifiably stoked by the Great Recession of —, which devastated millions of American families who lost their homes to foreclosure, or saw their suburban home values plummet. Many questioned the wisdom of home ownership, which in turn cast doubt on the viability of suburbia altogether. Writers like Gallagher contended this was the end of the line for the suburbs.
Americans were finally turning their backs on the form, reversing a long history of sprawling development.
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Yet different trends suggested otherwise. Immigrants, young families, seniors emotionally attached to their homes, and others continued gravitating toward suburban homeplaces, for a host of reasons—whether good schools, nostalgia, ethnic familiarity, jobs, or few good alternatives. Recent data suggests a return of suburban growth, after a post-recession slowdown.
The historical scholarship of post suburbia has flourished in recent decades, pushing the boundaries of urban history scholarship. A foundational text is Kenneth T. Adopting a definition of suburbia that emphasized their white, affluent, and middle-class character, Jackson surveyed the major stages of suburban development, starting with the elite 19th-century romantic suburbs, then tracing the gradual democratization of the form from streetcar and automobile suburbs to postwar mass-produced suburbs. While Jackson identified the broad forces that underlay this evolution, his emphasis on federal policy was a seminal contribution, outlining how Washington, D.
The results were devastating for cities and the minorities and poor left behind. Along with Robert Fishman in Bourgeois Utopias , Jackson established a normative portrait of suburbs as residential spaces of affluent white privilege. In a year retrospective on Crabgrass Frontier , Dianne Harris noted that because the book established a clear set of characteristics for the suburbs i. Like others before them, these works often took a local focus, digging deeply into the culture, architecture, politics, and institutions of specific suburban sites.
Other scholars pushed the boundaries of analysis, both geographically and demographically. Since , Thomas Sugrue, Robert Self, Matthew Lassiter, and Kevin Kruse have produced influential works that investigated the ways suburbs proactively created and protected advantage—in the realms of business growth, politics from conservative to centrist , wealth, and infrastructure—establishing enduring patterns of metropolitan inequality.
Scholars have also explored the role of metropolitan spaces producing social distinctions such as race, gender, and sexuality. From the early postwar years, activist scholars such as Robert Weaver, Charles Abrams, and Clement Vose pioneered a large body of literature documenting discrimination in housing and the disadvantages of racial segregation in U. In the s and s, scholars extended these insights, exploring the social and spatial production of inequality in metropolitan contexts. Feminist scholars such as Dolores Hayden illuminated the ways that separate and unequal assumptions about gender were built into the spaces of postwar suburbia.
Another current of analysis pushed demographic boundaries, challenging the assumption that suburbs were white, middle class by definition. They argued for a more expansive profile that incorporated class, race, and ethnic diversity.
They identified distinct lifeways, cultures, and politics that in some cases stood apart from mainstream white suburbs, though in others replicated their class-driven concerns in the postwar period. This focus on diverse suburbia carried forward in studies of the post era. This work offers some of the most robust challenges to the trope of suburbia as the domain of white middle-class privilege. This approach reflects not only a revisionist analytical perspective but also the changing realities of life in suburbs where immigrants, ethnic groups, racial minorities, and the poor have had time to settle in.
Geographers and demographers began by mapping out changing demographic patterns in metropolitan areas, establishing a critical baseline for qualitative scholarship. An early focus was on ethnic suburbs. Pioneering studies by Timothy Fong, Leland Saito, and John Horton explored the explosive racial politics that erupted in Monterey Park, California, when it transitioned from all-white to multiethnic, while scholars like Wei Li and Min Zhou theorized new models of race and space around processes of ethnic suburban settlement.
These studies explored the nature and implication of settlement patterns, spatial practices, transnational connections, political and cultural practices, and internal community dynamics. This latest wave of scholarship, perhaps more than any, offers bold alternatives to the orthodox narrative, recognizing in suburbia multiple politics, culture, lifeways, and values which reflect the outlook of their diverse inhabitants.
Historical sources on postwar suburbia exist in multiple locales, depending on the scale of analysis. For localized research on individual suburbs, sources often exist in local libraries, historical societies, or state historical societies.
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Materials may include local newspapers, clip files, real-estate promotional material, oral histories, and records of local institutions. Because local newspapers are rarely digitized, most are available on microfilm or in original paper form. Municipal city halls may contain city council and planning department records, local ordinances, design review board minutes, mayoral papers, and the records of other local governing bodies, though some local public documents have been deposited in local or state archives. Reuther Library of Labor and Urban Affairs—contain a wealth of local history materials, maps, booklets, real-estate ephemera, and private and public organization records.
For the Levittowns, no intact corporate archive exists according to Dianne Harris. At the county and metropolitan level, records may be available in county government offices—including property records such as building, deed, and mortgage records, which are indispensable to histories of real-estate development. Regional governing and planning bodies and university libraries may also hold regional reports on metropolitan transit, infrastructure, housing, planning, and the like.
On the history of metro-wide politics, around issues such as busing, redevelopment, public housing, and environmentalism, university archives often hold the papers of key individuals, agencies, or advocacy groups. It is worth exploring the special collections in local universities of the metro area under study. The built landscape itself is an excellent source for exploring the history of post suburbia, since much of this landscape is still intact. Homes, commercial districts, parks, streetscapes, job clusters, and physical barriers between segregated suburbs, as well as New Urbanist complexes and physical growth boundaries in Smart Growth cities, are all important markers of the suburban past.
Culture of the Suburbs: International Research Network —This international network of institutions devoted to suburban studies began in Its website has good links to resources across the globe. This website is based on an exhibition of these photographs at UC Riverside in Find this resource:. A promotional film for Levittown, PA. Center for Metropolitan Opportunity, University of Minnesota, School of Law —This website explores the diverse fiscal conditions and disparities across metropolitan America.
Brookings Metropolitan Policy Program —This program provides timely trend analysis, cutting-edge research and policy ideas for improving the health and prosperity of cities and metropolitan areas. The site includes events, media reports, research and commentary, projects, news and blogs. Mapping Decline: St. Offers rich context for the Ferguson crisis. Nelson and Edward L. It contains maps on foreign-born populations over time, and will include maps on redlining during the Depression and urban renewal. The Atlantic CityLab —Up-to-date reporting and analysis on cities, suburbs, and metros.
Calthorpe Associates —Innovators in urban planning and design. Congress for the New Urbanism —Main website for the national organization advocating for denser, more sustainable designs. Statistics on Sprawl , by the American Farmland Trust. Sustainable Cities Collective —This independently moderated community is a clearinghouse of information on sustainable urbanism. The Urban Reinventors —An open-source on-line urban journal offering global perspectives on pressing issues facing metro areas.
Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, Cheng, Wendy. New York: North Point Press, Harris, Dianne, ed. Second Suburb: Levittown, Pennsylvania. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, Hayden, Dolores. New York: Vintage, Jackson, Kenneth T. New York: Oxford University Press, Kruse, Kevin M. Sugrue, eds. The New Suburban History. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, Lassiter, Matthew.
Princeton: Princeton University Press, McGirr, Lisa. Nicolaides, Becky. Nicolaides, Becky and Andrew Wiese, eds. The Suburb Reader. New York: Routledge, Orfield, Myron. Self, Robert. Singer, Audrey, Susan W. Hardwick, and Caroline B. Brettell, eds. Teaford, Jon. The American Suburb: The Basics. Wiese, Andrew. Jon Butler. Kenneth T. Jackson, Crabgrass Frontier , Jackson, Crabgrass Frontier , — Hayden, Building Suburbia , Nonfarm Housing Starts, — , Bulletin No.
Department of Labor, U. Government Printing Office, , 15— Hayden, Building Suburbia , — James J. Jacobs, Detached America , — Jacobs, Detached America , chapters 4—5. Thomas J. Wiese, Places of Their Own. Whyte Jr. William M. Dobriner New York: G. Barbara M.
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Putnam Sons, , Harris, ed. Baxandall and Ewen, How the Suburbs Happened , Cohen, A Consumers Republic , chapter 5, quote at Whyte, Organization Man , Whyte, Organization Man , — Although Whyte went on to critique this way of life, he nonetheless depicted in detail a culture of vibrant neighborhood life. Baxandall and Ewen, How the Suburbs Happened , — Chad M. Gans, Levittowners , — Other works documenting strong social and civic engagement in suburbia in the —s include John R. Seeley, R. Alexander Sim and Elizabeth W. Scholars have recently explored how suburban elements such as home ownership and detached housing were an integral part of housing initiatives overseas during the Cold War.
Becky Nicolaides and Andrew Wiese, eds. Gans, The Levittowners ; Bennett M. For elaboration of this argument, see J. Kruse and Thomas J. Vladimir Atanasov and John J. Merrick Jr. News and World Report , April 27, ; U. See also, U. From a historical perspective, the suburban periphery was long marked by diversity—ethnic, class, and even racial—yet the postwar period represented something of an interruption to that trend with young, white nuclear families predominating in new suburban tracts. William H. Their study analyzed census data from the most populous metropolitan areas between and Nancy A.
Denton and Joseph R. Gary J. Petra L. Doan Farnham, U. Census Bureau statistics from — Data from U. Census, General Population and Housing Characteristics. Orfield, American Metropolitics. Edward G. Formed in the wake of two lawsuits, it involved 6, African American Section 8 tenants who moved into white suburbs around the Chicago area.
The story is recounted in Leonard Rubinowitz and James E. Kneebone and Berube, Confronting Suburban Poverty , 17— Their data was drawn from the most populous metropolitan areas in the United States. Nicolaides and Wiese, eds. Robert D. Other studies have explored this dilemma, by examining different scales and proposing scenarios for overcoming these tendencies: Robert D. Putnam and Lewis M. Sarah J. Cheng, Changs Next Door , The Boy Scout troops that Cheng analyzed included a mix of later-generation Chinese American and Japanese Americans, more recent ethnic Chinese immigrants, Mexican Americans, and kids with mixed backgrounds including Anglo.inyspanalti.ml/chicas-en-jaen.php
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Nicolaides and Wiese, The Suburb Reader , 2d ed. Asian malls represent a quasi-public venue for ethnic community building. Opposition was often strongest in suburbs on the geographic front lines of these issues. Lassiter, Silent Majority ; C. McKenzie, Privatopia. By , according to an estimate by the Community Associations Institute , Becky M.
James S. Duncan and Nancy G. Niedt, Social Justice in Diverse Suburbs , 4. In , 1, cars were impounded in Maywood, only 7 of these for drunk driving. Also see William Barnes and Larry C. For examples of this work, see Pastor, et. Orfield, American Metropolitics , The Charter of the New Urbanism. Davis, City of Quartz , Also see Thomas J. Kruse and Sugrue, New Suburban History , 6.
Sign in with your library card. Search within Race, Ethnicity, and Exclusion Mass suburbanization had equally dramatic consequences for race in postwar America. Social Life of Postwar Suburbanites The social history of postwar suburbia remains a fairly understudied area by historians. Political Life Scholars have examined the political culture of postwar suburbia since the mass suburban boom began, tracing critical trends that have shaped U. Population , 60, Click to view larger Figure 3.
Photograph by Andrew Wiese, Metropolitanism After , the economic ascendancy of suburbia that had been building since reached maturity. Pullen Papers, Collection contains correspondence, oral history transcripts, typescripts of speeches and books, and subject files. The bulk of the material concerns Dr. Pullen's contribution to education in MD, especially the desegregation of public schools and the accreditation of the University of Baltimore. Cummings, The collection consists of memorabilia related to the life of Harry Sythe Cummings. Cummings was one of the first two African American men to receive the Bachelor of Law degree from the University of Maryland.
Paul Henderson was a staff photographer for the Afro-American newspaper until ca. He documented the Baltimore African American community and many civil rights related activities. The collection consists of two boxes of miscellaneous print ephemera that documents African American civic, political, and religious life in twentieth-century Maryland.
This material is organized thematically. The majority of items are publications from Baltimore churches, institutions, schools and colleges, and civic organizations and programs from the funerals of prominent African Americans, including Clarence M. Mitchell and Justice Thurgood Marshall. The political material primarily relates to the Democratic Party and African American politicians in Baltimore. Hines was plaintiff in the Enoch Pratt Free Library suit to integrate training classes in The photograph collections listed below contain over images, many of which are related to the civil rights movement.
The Paul Henderson Photograph Collection provides a particularly strong record of the civil rights movement and related subjects. Paul Henderson Photograph Collection. Paul Henderson was a photographer for the Afro-American Newspaper. The collection includes photographic prints, one etched plate with wood backing, six framed photographs, and postcards. The collection contains 42 photographs. Includes prints, negatives, and one 35mm slide.
Baltimore — Streets — Pennsylvania Avenue, , , , not dated, ca The Sphinx Club was open from to the mid s. Oral Histories. There are a few individual projects or series that focus specifically on the civil rights movement such as the McKeldin-Jackson Project. Some of these projects are unprocessed; special collections staff hope to have them available for public use soon.
There are also many interviews that discuss various aspects of the civil rights movement, segregation, and related topics that are part of projects not specifically focusing on the civil right movement. Links provided below will take you to the specific project page containing inventories of interviews, project descriptions, and other resources. McKeldin-Jackson Project, Follow the link above to view a list of the interviewees with summaries, a project description, and other resources. OH , Caroline Ramsay. OH , Mildred Momberger.
OH , Arthur J. OH , Juanita Jackson Mitchell. OH , Peggy Waxter. OH , Louis Shub. OH , Peter Marudas. OH , Robert B. OH , Harry Cole. OH , David Glenn. OH , Thelma Turner. OH , Marshall S. Jones, Jr. OH , Enolia McMillan. OH , Earle Poorbaugh. OH , Marshall Bright, Sr. OH , Clifton Jones. OH , Glenn Grossman. OH , H. Warren Buckler. OH , Louise Kerr Hines. OH , Chester L. OH , Thomas J. OH , Charles E. OH , Samuel Hopkins. OH , Frieda Coleman. OH , Esther Lazarus. OH , John L. OH , William A. OH , Virginia Jackson Kiah.
OH , Edward N. OH , Marion Bascom. OH , Frank L. OH , Thomas M. OH , Vernon Dobson. OH , John R. OH , W. George Collins. OH , J. OH , Leon Sachs.
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OH , Silas Craft. OH , Evelyn Burrell. OH , Donald G. OH , Elizabeth Murphy Moss. OH , Margaret L. OH , Elizabeth D. OH , Winifred O. OH , Solomon Liss. OH , Verda D. OH , Lane Berk. OH , Troy Brailey. Marshall Stewart. OH , Susie Murphy. OH , D. Eldred Rinehart. OH , Katherine Rinehart. OH , James Hepbron. OH , Raymond A. OH , Clarence M. Mitchell, Jr. OH , Mildred Kemp Momberger. OH , Joseph Carter. OH , Paul Bailey. OH , Tucker D. OH , Luther H. OH , Louis Goldstein.
OH , Homer Favor. OH , Martin D. OH , Vernon Naimaster. OH , Charles Whiteford. OH , Eugene Feinblatt. OH , Victor Frenkel. Millard Tawes. OH , Parren Mitchell. OH , Milton Allen. OH , Walter Sondheim, Jr. OH , David W. OH , Clarence Blount. OH , James W. OH , Lawrence Cardinal Shehan. OH , Theodore R. McKeldin, Jr. OH , William Adams. OH , Bowen Kieffer Jackson. OH , Nancy Ann Krieger. OH , Frances Morton Froelicher. This project contains one interview dealing with the civil rights movement. OH , Anton Endler. Baltimore Interfaith Series, Seven of the 23 oral histories in this series contain civil rights related material.
Topics discussed in the interviews listed below include segregation, the Gwynn Oak Park demonstrations, the Baltimore Civil Rights Bill of , and the Baltimore Riots,. OH , Ellsworth Bunce. OH , John Cronin. OH , Abraham Shusterman. OH , Asbury Smith. OH , Alfred Starrett. Baltimore Neighborhood Heritage Project, The Pennsylvania Avenue shopping and entertainment district is also discussed. OH Oral histories not part of a project or series. Please click on the link above to visit the main oral history page where the following interviews can be located in the numbered inventories.
The inventories include biographical information and summaries of each interview. OH , Judge Simon Sobeloff. OH , George L. OH , Wilmer Dehuff. OH , Ednade Coursey Johnson. OH , Dorothy Coleman Lymas. OH , Anita Rose Williams. Maryland Historical Magazine. The Maryland Historical Magazine , a peer-reviewed quarterly, enjoys one of the largest readerships of any state historical journal in the nation.
Over its years, it has developed strong ties to the scholarly community. Despite the distance usually separating local and academic history, the magazine strives to bring together the "professional" and the "popular" to engage a broad audience while publishing serious research on Maryland and the region.
The Maryland Historical Magazine is available online. Click on the link provided to view the articles listed below. Baltimore, Maryland Phone: