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The latest craze in reductionism is social constructivism read more about reductionism in my article The pseudoscience of reductionism and the problem of mind. A Treatise in the Sociology of Knowledge. Both the weak and the strong version somehow claim that reality is social constructed from our language, or linguistic mappings. Examples on such institutions are legislation, for instance about traffic, monetary matters with everything that this include of banks, credit institutions, stock markets etc.

The strong version - which among others are framed by the Edinburgh sociologists David Bloor, Barry Barnes and Steven Shapin, and since followed up by a long line of others, among these Bruno Latour and Steve Woolgar - is about, that not just the mentioned institutions, but also all scientific results and discoveries, are social constructions. The individual constructivism has the same ideas. According to Nietzsche there neither exists a sensuous, a material, or a spiritual world given in advance.

Everything are created by being interpretated. With this Nietzsche introduced a quite central concept: perspectivism. Through our interpretations language we directly construct the world. And you must therefore have the will and power to create new values, and you must have the power to give them name in a new way, because namegiving is the same as an unfolding of power. Or else you end up as a slave. To live is to will, to will is to create values. The will to power is becoming through us, and in that way we get control over the things through a perspective. Nietzsche believed that the will - that is to say: the defeating, the remodeling, the striving - is something creative.

As told, then the will to power, according to Nietzsche, is a creating power. That this power is the basic power in Man means, according to Nietzsche, that all expressions of the human life must be understood as forms of will to power; intake of food, arrangement of the everyday life with home and clothes, cultivation of nature, as well as sensation, feelings, thinking and will in usual sense - are expressions of the will to power.

Nietzsche is not least thinking about the will to power in the image of art. All human unfolding is actually a creative process where a content, or a material, is formed. Life is seen as a work of art. A similar thought exists in the so-called self-production thesis, which is the thought about, that Man is the being, who creates himself through his history, and thereby controls his own freedom.

The thought exists in the German idealism, for instance in Fichte, Schelling, Hegel. Both Existentialism, as well as Marxism, also builds on the understanding of the freedom of Man to form his own life, and that this is an unconditional value. Freedom is a good thing, a demand and a responsibility. What it is about, is the freedom to be the creative power in your own history. In the Existentialists it is the life-story of the individual, in the Marxists it is the world-history of the community.

The self-production thesis builds on the thought, that Man is in a continual state of becoming.


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The concept formation also often becomes used in connection with the concept of becoming. It is now easy to see how much the modern management theory and coaching industry is inspired by Nietzsche: the relativistic and subjectivistic ideas about that it only is the individual himself who, through his interpretations, or stories, can supply the world with values — or rather, not supply, but directly create it like a God; the denial of the past, and the orientation towards future; the superman idea about being a winner, a succes, a person standing on the top of the mountain; the preaching about that it is not facts, but the best story, which wins.

Also existentialism can be used to justify these thoughts. That is: value-subjectivism. The existentialists say that Man has the freedom, through his choices, to be the creative power in his own history. The viewpoint is called decisionism, because values at base are founded on a choice, or a decision read more about constructivism in my article Constructivism: the postmodern intellectualism behind New Age and the self-help industry.

Even though they, in their sources of inspiration, at first specify two quite different views of Man and his possibilities and purposes in the world, they are common in explaining humans from a conception about, that humans have lost or all the time are in risk of loosing himself and therefore constantly have to work with personal development in order to find himself psychotherapy and the dream of a lost past or to become himself coaching and the hope of a richer future.

You can say that the two world-images both are based on the claim, that a human being not is himself, before he becomes himself, and that both world-images see lifelong therapeutic self-improvement as a presumption for, that a human being can become and live authentic. The two world-images can in other words be seen as two versions of the same superior psychologizing understanding of life, which the Danish researcher of religion Iben Krogsdal calls the mythology of authenticity. This mythology is so to speak a compilation of the two world-images into one.

Thereby he looses himself his self-possession and becomes another. He discovers, that his problems or wishes of change are due to, that he not so far has been in possession of himself. The other humans exist in the subconcious mind and therefore have to be segregated through therapeutic self-cultivation. When this has happened, Man can himself decide, how he will react to reality.

At the same time he gets in contact with his hidden resources to either becoming himself as he was once — psychotherapy and the dream of a lost past — or to become the other, he wants to become — coaching and the hope of a richer future. The authentic human being lives with inner accordance — and he expresses himself by creating accordance between his inner and the external world.

So the mythology of authenticity defines Man as a being, who continuously need to cultivate himself therapeutical. The mythology does so by making Man into a problem to himself I explain this problem-making of oneself in the last section of this article: Becoming versus being: False spirituality versus true spirituality. This manuscript is a kind of un-written and very outspread script about how life typically forms itself to a human being, and how a human being through therapy all the time is in need of becoming healed. Frank Furedi therefore sees the therapization of the late modern society as a kind of cultivation of fragility.

It can sound paradoxical in a time which praises the autonomous and self-responsible human being, but the spread of the therapeutic manuscript through psychology and therapy is precisely participating in educating people in believing, that they are irresponsible, helpless and therewith dependent of treatment Furedi , People quite simply learn to see themselves as vulnerable victims, who all the time become exposed for assaults and therefore constantly have to be helped, supported, healed.

With the industrial modernization Man has cultivated a mind, which can solve almost any technological problem; that, which the German philosopher Habermas calls the instrumental reason. But apparently human problems have never been solved. On the contrary mankind are about to be drowned in its problems: problems concerning communication, the relationship with others, heaven and hell. The whole of the human existence has become one extremely complex problem. And apparently it has been like that through the whole of history. Despite the knowledge of Man, despite his millenniums of evolution, Man has never been free from such problems.

But as Habermas says, then we are not using such a reason, on the contrary we are using an instrumental reason on human problems, where it only should be used on technical problems. We seek to solve human problems technically, where they should be solved in a philosophical way.

The systems the market, the economy, the bureaucracy, the systems have colonized the lifeworld. An aspect of, that the instrumental reason has conquered territory from the communicative reason consists in, that we in connection with human problems treat each other as means or as items, which have come on the wrong course the treatment society. It is interesting, that the New Age movement, which actually should be a spiritual alternative to this, and be an advocate for a communicative reason, on the contrary is one of the most aggressive advocates for the instrumental reason.

This is due to its psychologizing of philosophy. New Age is possessed with all kind of self-invented forms of treatment, and with pseudoscientifical attempts to justify them as science. It is just a rhetorical trick to persuade people to pay the fee. So, in the mythology of authenticity people are seen as a kind of victims. Through childhood and the influence of others they have lost themselves or their original self-feeling. In the therapy — as Krogsdal understands broadly as all personality developing work, whether it takes place at a therapist, in courses, in in-service training, or at home alone —people once again get the possibility for letting go of their roles of victims.

At the same time they also, in accordance with the mythology of authenticity, get the possibility for actualizing their subconcious potentials. In this way the mythology of authenticity keeps, in accordance with Krogsdal, its own practice — that will say therapy in broad sense — alive through the assertion about the chronical lack of authenticity.

In this fundamental way the myth-rite-system maintains itself: the mythology refers to the therapeutic practice, and the practice revives and revitalizes the mythology. All in a continuous, circular movement. So, as Krogsdal says, on the one hand the authenticity-mythology paradoxically enough confesses Man as independently, while it on the other hand makes Man dependent of therapeutic help broadly understood as both therapy, dialogues or self-therapeutic work by defining him as a damaged or not-yet-genuine individual, which is in need of constant personal development. There are always hidden potentials and resources to fetch in the individual.

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To become yourself is therewith in accordance with the mythology of authenticity the process, with which Man actualizes himself as potential and goes through an extensive transformation to the better. With the promise about a transformation to the better the mythology of authenticity has in accordance with Krogsdal a fundamental feature in common with another of the large-scale suppliers of myths in the age of authenticity: the advertising industry.

The modern advertising culture induces the hope, that you quickly and easily can replace one identity with another, that you through a consumer-defined change of life-style can transform your life thoroughly. You can so to speak through consumer-choices become an other and better version of yourself. The problem of authenticity that you not yet are yourself and the longing, which arises from this problem the longing after becoming yourself is in this way today parallel with the indirectly claim of the advertising-world to people about, that they constantly need new products, which can make them into new and better people.

Both the advertising-industry and the self-help industry draw on the story about Man as a not-yet; a story which reduces the present to branches of the future and looks at people as potentials, and not as something already realized. Both industries profit in this way, Krogsdal thinks, from the authenticity-mythological propaganda about the dream about, that you in reality are another humanistic psychology — or that you always can become another constructivism.

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In the now Man is insufficient, he is always on a station before himself, and therefore all the time must be future-oriented. In the humanistic psychological world-image and in the constructivistic world-image this growth-ideology not only expresses itself as a promising invitation to become a better, more fantastic and life-capable other, but also as a threat.

Lack of authenticity actually becomes connected with danger: the person who lives unconscious without knowing and unfolding himself, basically risks to become both psychical and physical sick. In accordance with humanistic psychology restrained feelings will at some point begin to express themselves in inappropriate ways, for instance as pains, illnesses, depression or stress.

The request for growth becomes in this way not alone what Krogsdal calls carrot-stories which focus on the possibility for getting a better life — but also a kind of whip-stories. They are whip-stories because they tell Man that he is a self-explaining being with positive intentions alone, and whose suffering always is a symptom on, that something is wrong that he thinks wrongly.

The punishment of lack of authenticity — that will say: lack of personal development and self-expression — can in the growth-ideology be tough.


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  7. To be in non-growth is to risk yourself and your own health. In that sense the growth-demand in the two world-images is so fundamental, that non-growth is being made sickly. The healthy person is the person who works with himself — the sick person is the person who not yet has reacted on himself, realized himself, actualized his symptom-giving potential. Growth is considered the touchstone of normality, and therefore absolutely necessary. In that way we, in accordance with Krogsdal, today see a rising tendency to anomalizing or making non-growth sickly.

    Today we increasingly adapt or treat conditions, which before were regarded as normal conditions this also happens in the pharmaceutical industry. In a growth-oriented culture which praises Man as resource-strong, the eye of what someone or something not yet are, has paradoxically enough become immensely sharp. When the future becomes everythings scale, change becomes, in accordance with Krogsdal, to a touchstone of human normality. The late modern Capitalistic society praises the changeable, growth-oriented, personal developing and flexible person — contrary to the stable, past-oriented and finished person Sennett The Danish ethnologist Kirsten Marie Bovbjerg has with starting point in NLP Courses shown how this future-orientation comes to expression in the working life, where the view of Man as a potential in large scale forms the starting point for the industry of employee-development and modern management Bovbjerg As potentials people get market value and are being made into substance as merchandise or shares you can invest in; the self becomes habitat of resources, which can be extracted and cultivated with the future as only horizon.

    This therapeutic potential-eye on Man comes in accordance with Krogsdal to expression in a number of other places than in the actual psychological and therapeutic practice. It also appears in the rising demand for self-improvement techniques, in the last years especially in the phenomenon coaching constructivism which focus always is concrete action, and which therefore expresses the conception, that you always can do something about something.

    The increased speak of and use of sexologists is an expression of the same development.


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    And finally it is in accordance with Krogsdal quite certainly not accidentally that they also in the entertainment-industry in these years are intensely occupied by the undiscovered and un-cultivated talent; by exposing the ordinary person who in reality appears to be unusual fantastic, to be a hidden star, to have so-called X-factor.

    Man only becomes himself by being in relation with this otherness, which precisely in its power of otherness is eternal and endless, and which determines Man both existential, conceptual thought and language , ethical, cognitional and metaphysical: that will say: it defines Man in philosophical sense. Through a few truly spiritual practising men and women there has in all great religions arisen a spiritual practice which represented, not only a rediscovery, but in some cases an intensification of the light of an original teaching, universal and common to all mankind. Unlike the established religions this teaching is laying its emphasis on realization and inner transformation.

    And it is this which constitute the philosophical element in the spiritual practice. It is therefore I make much out of involving the concept of philosophy, for thereby to explain the essential role this concept has in the meditative process. This is because that the concept of spirituality, with the progress of psychology in the Western countries, far too often is being psychologized, with a lot of distortions, and misleadings as result. The psychologizing of the meditation-concept itself - that is to say: the psychologizing of the philosophical aspects of the meditation-concept - is namely a reductionism; that is: a distortion of human nature.

    In the following I will use the word God in the above-mentioned sense, and describe the psychologizing tendency. Today, where people long ago have stopped explaining the ups and downs of life through a God or other cosmic powers, still more people explain themselves through psychology. They turn their eyes inwards. Introspection is a quite central concept in the method which is used in the self-help industry; contrary to the traditional spiritual traditions where the only possibility for discovering yourself is to see your relationships as a mirror.

    The system of explanation which today replaces the old cosmic system with for example God and Devil, is in this way in very high degree a system of self -explanation, which in widely extent draws on psychology as the teaching about, and the interest in, the human inner. People today more than ever relate to themselves, and their own past, when they have to explain why they are standing in a given life-situation. And when the course of the world has to be explained in a psychologized age, it often becomes explained as a product of the growing up conditions of single individuals and consequently psychical conditions.

    This psychologizing of Man has with the self-help industry been led to its temporarily extremity. In self-help environments most people try to find an autobiographical-psychological explanation of everything: the individual person is fully explained from within by the subconcious mind. A self-help practitioner will typically look into himself, into his own subconcious, after explanations. The more authentic people, the better the world. When the individual becomes authentic find again and expresses himself it is happening for the best of both own and the collective.

    Conflicts, crises and class struggles basically arise because people not have worked with themselves; because they not are enough personally developed, because they act from un-released childhood traumas psychotherapy or un-released potentials coaching. The world is problematic because it consists of psychical wounded or un-unfolded humans, who are acting from a lack of consciousness about themselves. Until people becomes aware and able to integrate the repressed parts in themselves, until they therewith become whole and healed , they are in accordance with the new world-images reduced to be limited and as such not appreciative towards others; they are reduced to be un-constructive, intolerant and in other ways inappropriate in their behaviour towards both themselves and others, not at least the children they are parents of.

    If you for example have grown up with an absent father, then you often come to be absent towards your own children. We here explicitly see the reductionism. I speak about both the collective and universal history as ontological and metaphysical karmacially structures, which are lying in the wholeness; accordingly not in the psyche see my article What is karma? That would be an example of the thought distortion called Nondual bias. The only thing that can be said to be nondual is the wholeness.

    The wholeness is lying in human relationship with the otherness, and only in the relationship it can be discovered, not by way of introspection. See my article Paranormal phenomena seen in connection with mystical experiences , A critique of Stanislav Grof and Holotropic Breathwork , and my book A dictionary of thought distortions. Both the collective and universal history are in this reductionism cut away, and that is a problem, when you at the same time work with spiritual practice, for example meditation, which with time will bring both the collective and universal history for the day, and that will say karmacially structures.

    Within the alternative environment of New Age and the self-help industry intellectual ego-inflation is extremely widely spread, and when the game, as here, is about the development of Man, about the depths of the mind, about archetypical powers, about the source of life, then intellectual ego-inflation can be a hazardous play. When the intellectual knowledge begins to approach philosophical and religious areas, wisdom of life, meditation, spirit, then the ego can misjudge itself by being intoxicated by its intellectual understanding of deep phenomena.

    The reduction of all this to something inner-psychic where the deeper collective and universal history have been reduced to the personal history is self-deception, it is ego-inflation — and it will unavoidably lead to misguiding of others. The psychologizing of explanation has a line of historical causes, but when it today has become so outspread, then this, in accordance with Krogsdal, is closely connected with, that many people find it difficult to navigate in a globalized and increasingly unpredictable world.

    Many structural connections are today out of human control, the everyday life has to the individual person become risky and unpredictable, and therefore many increasingly turn to themselves and their own control sphere, in order to practise a kind of control with themselves, their own body, their own life style. Control makes us feel powerful, which is a good feeling. And feeling that your own thoughts are in control of everything that happens is comforting to many people, for example the New Thought idea about that your thoughts can control an universal law called the law of attraction, which will give you anything you desire, if you just use your thoughts in the correct way see my article The New Thought movement and the law of attraction.

    Is there any harm in this? In my article The value of having a religion in a spiritual practice I describe that only an intervention from the source God, Christ, the enlightened consciousness can basically help Man with a trancendence of the negative karma of the original sin. But in order to be able to receive this help you must do your part of the work: the spiritual practice. Many years. First thereafter the mystical process can begin. Very few people will be willing to do this.

    On the contrary many people have today done an illusory work of trying to re-define this ancient wisdom, so that the magnet of attraction directly is becoming the object of worship. Another aspect of the true spiritual practice is that you break the automatic process of compensatory karma, which is closely related to laws of nature, cycles of life, yes actually pure causal regularity of mechanical kind.

    It would an illusion to connect such things with a superior intentional divine order see the thought distortion Intentionality bias. Furthermore you have your free will either to continue to be identified with the area of compensatory karma, or break with it, into the area of progressive karma where the mystical process begins — about karma see my articles What is karma?

    In Taoism and Zen they talk about the concept of Wu Wei which means non-activity, passive listening presence, non-control, non-interfering, which lead to Tzu-jen, spontaneity and naturalness. In Zen they for example talk about that when practising Wu Wei you are letting the grass grow by itself. Illusion of control is related to Ego-inflation That the eye for larger structural connections falls away for the benefit of focus on the individual person and his problems can in accordance with Krogsdal be seen as a a kind of resignation, where people draw themselves back to themselves and at the same time give up themselves as cultural critical beings.

    Yes, critical thinking — and that will both say philosophy and science - is directly under attack, partly from constructivism, which forms the postmodern intellectualism and therefore the ideology behind New Age and the self-help industry see my article Constructivism: the postmodern intellectualism behind New Age and the self-help industry ; partly from the psychologizing demand for therapeutic solutions to everything. In a complex world, where problems are explained from the actions of the individual, and where actions are explained from psychological dispositions, it is not strange, that you increasingly turn to therapeutic solutions to enormous structural problems.

    The psychologizing therewith risks to contribute to a kind of cultural anaesthesia, or intellectual laziness, which all the time reduces the individual person to have to explain himself from within, instead of relating critical to things which may arrive from outside. And this explanation is demanded to avoid philosophical argumentation; that is: critical thinking. It requires that you accept to be in a therapeutic situation, and explain yourself only in psychological terms.

    This therapeutic approach to everything is seen in its most extreme form in Nonviolent Communication see my article Nonviolent Communication NVC is an instrument of psychic terror. Krogsdal claims that with the psychologizing of everything, the subconcious in Man quite simply becomes ascribed the intentions which before were ascribed to God.

    The struggle for a better world therefore no longer takes place on an outside political, philosophical or religious scene, but rather on an inner battlefield. It is not the world, which has to be controlled — it is the individual human being's own hidden inner. But both psychology, and the many methods which belong to the psychologizing, in many ways look like religion in more traditional sense, and there is quite explicitly talk about a new ideology; that is: ideology as understood in relation to philosophy, which I will explain later in this article.

    Both religion and psychology are using certain world-images which explain the world, and make use of a line of rituals which are used to change the individual and the condition of the world. And what is more important: both within religion and psychology they all the time refer to something which is hidden for the individual person, but which can be contacted and interpreted both by Man himself and by the experts.

    In the classical Christian system the experts are first of all experts in God, but in the psychologized system the experts are experts in the psyche with all its hidden, subconcious layers. Since we have to do with a hidden power — something invisible which works on a different plane in life than what we directly understand or have access to — the experts get a very big role to play. They have as experts precisely specialized in understanding this invisible reality, how it arises, how it gives signals, and how it works both inside the individual person and in the interaction between people.

    They are the mediators who have to help the individual to understand himself from this hidden. Just like people in premodern time believed in an outside power, God, and therefore as something obvious adapted themselves a priesthood, still more people today believe in the inner, subconcious potential and therefore quite obvious go to see psychologists, psychotherapists and coaches in their attempt of understanding and explaining themselves.

    Another way of saying it is that the classical, religious longing after God has become a new longing: the longing after a self; a different self, a more genuine self; or perhaps just a self. Something which is standing firm in a world where everything else all the time risk to fall. This longing becomes dictated by the new world-images and kept alive through therapy as their fundamental ritual.

    Therapy here has to be understood very broadly. It can both be the concrete therapeutic conversation between a psycho-expert and a client, or it can be therapeutic exercises the individual practises at home alone after having read self-help books. So in accordance with the new world-images it is not sin and lack of God, which are the fundamental problems of Man — it is rather traumas and lack of authenticity.

    To work with personal development is therefore about trying to heal traumas and come in contact with yourself. In a time where religion increasingly becomes replaced with psychology people no longer want to be sinners. They want to be themselves, and preferable all the time in another and better version. Regardless of whether you choose to see the new world-images and their rituals — psychotherapy and coaching — as a religious system, or not, it is evident, that they to a high degree sell their services on the same market as religion in classical sense.

    When people today have to find out who they are, and how they want to live, they in far higher degree go to the psychologist or the therapist than to the priest. The church is lying far away and good out on the hill and becomes used to solemnities: baptism, confirmation, wedding, funeral service and Christmas. The everyday life and the life-perspective of the individual are no longer neither the area of the church or of Christianity or other religions.

    Under any circumstance you can say that modern people with the new world-images and therapeutic rituals today has discovered alternative, or at any rate supplementary, ways of explaining and cultivating themselves, and that psychology and psychotherapy in practice are in progress of taking over that market of meaning, which before in special degree belonged to religion and philosophy. Alone the number of therapists measured against the number of priests, speak for itself. Add to this a far larger number of people, who are shortly educated in NLP, for example in connection with after- and in-service training, as well as an unknown number of NLP-coaches.

    If you spread the perspective out and only see NLP as a small subdivision of the general psychologizing and therapization of the late modern life, you can include the tens of thousands of therapists, coaches, sexologists, psychotherapists and psychologists and in yet farther sense: educators, teachers, social workers, etc. The market of meaning and explanation are therewith, Krogsdal thinks, today to a high degree handed over from, for example, Christianity and the church as institution, to a multifold and numerous series of practitioners, of which NLP-therapists, NLP-coaches and NLP-consultants only constitute a lesser but eminently expansionary part.

    Who do I preferable want to be? Where shall I go? The answers are now usually: you are more than you believe, you'll preferable be a more genuine version of yourself, and: you have to go the way, which is true to you In my book Meditation as an Art of Life — a basic reader I have given a line of answers to a line of similar fundamental philosophical questions, but from a philosophical perspective, and not a psychological; or said differently: from a non-reductionistic point of view.

    Since we at the same time today as society increasingly praise the freedom of the individual, two questions become quite decisive for the individual person: How do I gain power over my life? And how much can I actually myself control and plan? In accordance with the new psychologizing world-images the answers are: You take power over your life by developing yourself constantly — and you can control your existence much more than you know, in fact, you can create your life as it suit you, alone through the power of the thought.

    Everybody have in the starting point the potential to live and unfold self-responsible, and they ought to make optimal use of this potential. The ideal human life is the life where a person makes his own life-decisions, sets his own agenda, takes largest possible responsibility for himself, steps in character and in all ways strives after acting as an independently and masterful person.

    But at the same time as the new world-images accordingly go hand in hand with an individualistic and liberalistic view of human nature, they are paradoxically enough also instrumental in cultivating a market for therapeutic treatment. On this market many people increasingly learn to see themselves as vulnerable and disposed, and at the same time they therewith learn, that they are in need of therapy or of working therapeutical with themselves, if they want to have an optimal and — especially — authentic life.

    It is this paradox, which in accordance with Krogsdal, is clinging to the therapization of life: that the more the ideal about the independent and authentic person becomes outspread, the more treatment and practitioners are needed. In the premodern society, where a transcendent God still existed, and where people to a high degree understood themselves from this God, it was not a pronounced life-task to go beyond themselves.

    Towards God you remain small. Today, where God so to speak has moved into the human subconcious, or where the path to God at any rate goes through this subconcious, things have become more complicated. They are not finished in advance, they are all the time on the way; on the way of finding, becoming and out-living themselves in a changeable world, where nothing anymore is standing eternally firm.

    There exists no outside centre of rotation of the human life, no outside firm point which you can see the world from. But instead there exists the conception about the authentic self as the place the world can be seen from. And this has to be continuous seeked and developed through therapeutic treatment, where authenticity is understood as that to become another. Nor is it therefore longer, as the most obvious, the church, you return to when life has to be interpreted into a larger meaning — it is rather therapy.

    It is in therapy you find yourself, feel yourself, exceed yourself and create connection and meaning. Where the self no longer becomes defined through religion and cosmology it looks like that it precisely is about to become the assignment of therapy continuously to connect people with their actions — assist them in creating correspondence between what they fundamentally are humanistic psychology or choose to be constructivism — and what they deal with and make in the world. Therapy has in other words become the place, or the refuge, the world in a psychologized age can be seen and understood from.

    It is in a very large degree therapy which unravels and collects the threads of life for the individual person. Therefore Krogsdal also thinks that you can see therapy — in broadest sense — as more than only a means of personal development. Therapy is a personality developing process which has to be repeated and repeated, and it therewith also itself becomes a goal. To go in therapy increasingly in itself becomes a fixed point, yes perhaps even the red thread in a flowing and changeable world.

    Self-help, psychotherapy and coaching are today an example of how people constantly are reduced to having to find, develop and explain themselves from psychologized ideas about the human life.

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    God as explanation is no longer seriously current in an off-traditionalized and secularized world. But as Krogsdal points out: when the self-help industry tells people, that they through personal development and self-cultivation, can become themselves, it opens the doors for its own built-in paradox. It promises people liberation and praises the responsible and self-leading human being — but creates at the same time people, who are dependent of continued therapeutic intervention.

    The more people are told, that they can treat themselves, the more they are in the risk of being made into uncritical objects for therapeutic treatment.

    (PDF) Self-Help Ideology | Heidi Rimke - hyfahutenybe.cf

    The widespread psychologized, emotionalized and therapized belief in the hidden aspects of humans the unconscious has not only given humans a new way of self-creation, but also a new outer definition of new authorities self-help consultants, practitioners, identity-experts, therapists, coaches, spin doctors , who are characterized by, that they neither want to be authorities or to be looked at as authorities. People in the mythology of authenticity will no longer suppress others or be suppressed from the outside, they want to express others and themselves be expressed from within. The self-help industry, and its belonging therapeutic techniques, thereby exposes the paradox, that the more resource-filled a human being is conceived to be, the more it has to be supported therapeutic.

    The more self-actualizing a human being becomes, the more it is in need of help to actualize itself. And the more responsibility a human being is said to have for its own life, the more this same human being, basically, is considered as a victim, as non-authentic, and therefore as powerless. As mentioned in the beginning: The one face of this paradoxical Janus head is the empowerment culture, the other face is the victimization culture and the connected recovery movement. To many others it seems like a joke.

    And those staggering financial costs are actually the least of our worries. The other camp is Empowerment. The inside story on the most notorious gurus—from Dr. Phil to Dr. Laura, from Tony Robbins to John Gray. How Americans blindly accept that twelve-step programs offer the only hope of treating addiction, when in fact these programs can do more harm than good. How the self-help movement inspired the disastrous emphasis on self-esteem in our schools.

    How self-help rhetoric has pushed people away from proven medical treatments by persuading them that they can cure themselves through sheer application of will. As Salerno shows, to describe self-help as a waste of time and money vastly understates its collateral damage. The author addresses the social implications of a society engaged in these types of solutions to their problems, and argues that they foster passivity, social isolation, and attitudes contrary to democracy. Kaminer writes that it is not the content that appears on talk shows that is the problem, but rather that "they claim to do so much more than entertain; they claim to inform and explain.

    They dominate the mass marketplace and make it one that is inimical to ideas. Note: In connection with the postmodern intellectualism subjectivism and relativism I claim that both the Empowerment culture and the Victimization culture are closely related to the power of reductionism in our culture. When you today ask: what is a human being? This has become a whole ideology in the Western world, and a fundamental part of the Illuminati aspect of The Matrix Conspiracy.

    It is actually a kind of sociobiology, or social Darwinism. The paper documents the increasing secularization and pragmatism of Gamblers Anonymous, as reflected in key documents, despite the spiritual vision of its founding member. The author speculates on why Gamblers Anonymous took a secularized development path. Further research is called for.

    Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF. Skip to main content. Advertisement Hide. Really not god: Secularization and pragmatism in Gamblers Anonymous. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves. This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access. Alcoholics Anonymous. Twelve steps and twelve traditions soft-cover edition. Google Scholar. Browne, B. The selective adaptation of the Alcoholics Anonymous program by Gamblers Anonymous. Journal of Gambling Studies, 7 , — CrossRef Google Scholar.

    Custer, R. When luck runs out: Help for compulsive gamblers and their families. New York: Warner Books. Deland, P. The facilitation of gambling. Feagin, J. Frank, S. Gamblers Anonymous: Modeled after Alcoholics Anonymous, this new organization succeeds where psychiatrists fail in helping compulsive gamblers lick the habit. Saturday Evening Post, , 44— Gamblers Anonymous. Untitled Original piece of literature used at the founding G. Gamblers Anonymous: Questions and answers about the program of compulsive gambling and the G. Los Angeles, California: G.

    Publishing Co. Sharing recovery through Gamblers Anonymous. Los Angeles, CA: G. Glazer, N. American Judaism. Second Edition. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Kaminer, W.