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### EViews training

Improved reading of Stata and Excel data. What's new in version 5. Econometric procedures updated for latest TSP version The Econometric Benchmarks contain data sets and TSP procedures to re produce results from classic articles and textbooks in econometrics and statistics. TSP 5. TSP manual and reference guide 5. By Danny Tyson Quah Windows version available. Young, Pedro M. Valero Mora and Michael Friendly. Forrest W. Young passed away in What's new in 6.

Multidimensional scaling. Many influence measures. Lots of example data from Biology, Health, sociology, psychology, crime, marketing. Program in its 17th year of development. Developers Workshop. Time series program operated via the Web with nice sample data sets. There is a simple non-Gaussian State Space model one can try to estimate. WEKA 3. Serial number during installation: de Not sold or updated since Xplore in Japanese. Free evaluation version for download. User-friendly solving nonlinear macroeconomic models What's new in 3.

Findley, Brian C. Hint: Use frequency delimiters rather than the colon. Ambiguity is not your friend. But nothing stops you from treating the values in any EViews series as dates. For example, one series might give the date a stock was bought and another series might give the date the same stock was sold.

Internally, EViews stores dates as "date numbers"—the number of days since January 1, AD according to the Gregorian proleptic don't ask calendar. Great for computers—not so great for humans. Then more fields will appear to let you further customize the format. This looks a lot better. EViews will also translate text strings into dates when doing an ASCII Read, and set the initial display of the series read to be a date format. In a spreadsheet view, you can change the display by right-clicking on a column and choosing Display format I 0 0 0 Hint: Since dates are stored as numbers, you can do sensible date arithmetic.

So dates are pretty straightforward. Except when they're not. EViews—Meet Data Chapter 3. Regression's job is to find numerical values for theoretical parameters. In the simplest case this means telling us the slope and intercept of a line drawn through two dimensional data. But EViews tells us lots more than just slope and intercept. We'll walk through these items as well. Data are missing from observation 2 for X I and from observation 3 for X2.

The variable, X l - l , giving the previous period's values of X I , is missing both the first and third observation. The first value of XI -1 is NA because the data from the observation before observation 1 doesn't exist. There is no observation before the first one, eh? What's the use of the top three lines?

It's nice to know the date and time, but EViews is rather ungainly to use as a wristwatch. Since we're talking about looking at output at a later date, this is a good time to digress on ways to save output for later. Then save the workfile. Copy and i 0K 1 1 I then paste into a word processor. You can then Nme] this frozen table so that it will be saved in the workfile. See Chapter 17, "Odds and Ends. Getting the Most from Least Squares based on the data in the workfile.

Econometrics texts sometimes use the Greek letter epsilon, e , rather than u for the error term. Along with an estimated value for each parameter e. We'll start with the former approach. Pick Equation in the New Object dialog. For this reason, spaces generally aren't allowed inside a single item. If you type: log volume c trend you'll get an error message. Getting t h e Most from Least Squares Exception to the previous hint: When a text string is called for in a command, spaces are allowed inside paired quotes.

Hint: Another reminder: g t r e n d is an EViews function to generate a time trend, 0, 1, 2, Then we'll discuss the remaining items one number at a time. Table 2 1 Intercept t t2 log volume -lj 2 Don't worry, we'll corne back to it later. Hint: Good scientific practice is to report only digits that are meaningful when displaying a number. We've printed far too many digits in both the inline display and in Table 2 so as to make it easy for you to match up the displayed numbers with the EViews Output.

From now on we'll be better behaved. We've already talked about the two most important numbers, "R-squared" and "S. Five other elements, "Sum squared residuals," "Log likelihood," "Akaike info criterion," "Schwarz criterion," and "Hannan-Quinn criter. For the record, the sum of squared residuals is used in Computing F-tests, the log likelihood is used for Computing likelihood ratio tests, and the Akaike and Schwarz criteria are used in Bayesian model comparison. Remember: EViews will drop observations from the estimation sample if any of the left-hand side or right-hand side variables are NA— i.

Why use valuable screen space on numbers you could get elsewhere? Primarily as a safety check. The adjusted R always rises. This is a numerical property of , sometimes written R, , subtracts a small penalty for each additional variable added. The F-statistic in the summary area is doing exactly the same test for ail the coefficients except the intercept together. A Durbin-Watson close to 2. The "DW," as the statistic is known, of 0. Well, almost. The model we've used so far explains the log of NYSE volume as a linear function of time.

We begin by linking up the numbers in the inline display—or equivalently column 1 of Table 2—with the EViews Output shown earlier. The third EViews column, labeled "Std. In the scientific reporting displays above, we've reported the Standard error in parentheses directly below the associated coefficient. EViews labels the ser as "S. Don't confuse the two. Error t-Statistic Prob. It's computed as the ratio of the estimated coefficient to its standard error: e.

If the f-statistic reported in column four is larger than the critical value you choose for the test, the estimated coefficient is said to be "statistically significant. The larger the risk you're willing to take, the smaller the critical value, and the more likely you are to find the coefficient "significant. That's probably because the computation is so easy it's not worth using scarce screen real estate.

Degrees of freedom equals the number of observations reported in the top panel on the output screen less the number of parameters estimated the number of rows in the middle panel. The textbook approach to hypothesis testing proceeds thusly: 1. Pick a size the probability of mistakenly rejecting , say five percent.

Getting t h e Most from Least Squares method you use is strictly a matter of taste. Be sure to include " C " in the list of independent variables unless you're sure you don't want an intercept. This is because the first data we can use for lagged volume, from second quarter , is the non-lagged volume value from the first quarter. We can't compute lagged volume in the first quarter because that would require data from the last quarter of , which is before the beginning of our workfile range.

Just use the reported tstatistic. With EViews it's nearly as easy to test much more complex hypotheses. In cases with a single restric- Test Statistic tion, EViews will also show the f-statistic. Hint: The p-value reported by EViews is computed for a two-tailed test. If you're interested in a one-tailed test, you'll have to look up the critical value for yourself. So this hypothesis is also easily rejected.

Err Hypothesis T e s t i n g — 7 7 Econometric theory warning: If you've studied the advanced topic in econometric theory called the "unit root problem" you know that standard theory doesn't apply in this test although the issue is harmless for this particular set of data. Take this as a reminder that you and EViews are a team, but you're the brains of the outfit. EViews will obediently do as it's told. It's up to you to choose the proper procedure. EViews is happy to test a hypothesis involving multiple coefficients and nonlinear restrictions.

Err 0 Delta method computed using analytic derivatives 7 8 — C h a p t e r 3. The hypothesis is rejected. Note that EViews correctly reports 2 degrees of freedom for the test statistic. Hint: Okay, okay. But from the residuals it's easy to see two facts: our model fits better in the later part of the sample than in the earlier years—the residuals become smaller in absolute value—and there are a very small number of data points for which the fit is really terri ble.

As an illustration, the workfile "5Days. Y -l for Monday and Y l for Friday are both NA, because they represent unknown data—the opening price on the Friday before we started collecting data and the opening price on the Monday after we stopped collecting data, respectively. In an undated or an irregularly dated workfile, one lag simply picks up the preceding observation—which may or may not have been measured one time period earlier. Put another way, in a workfile holding data for U.

Lags are the first exception. The order matters because the assignment for the first observation can affect the processing of the second observation. Then the statement sets the third observation of Y to the value of the second observation Y -l plus. Since there is Si Series Y Workfile Next, EViews would add the first observation to 0. Our original use of smpl statements to avoided propagating NAs by having the first lagged value be the value of the first observation, which was 0—as we intended.

We'll work through some of the more interesting ones below in the section Relative Exotica. Here, we look at the basics. Several of the most often used functions have "reserved names," meaning these functions don't need the sign and that the function names cannot be used as names for your data 92—Chapter 3. Getting the Most from Least Squares Points with really big positive or negative residuals are called outliers.

You can see enormous residuals in the second quarter for The actual value looks out of line with the surrounding values. Grabbing the Residuals Since there is one residual for each observation, you might want to put the residuals in a series for later analysis. All done. Without you doing anything, EViews stuffs the residuals into the special series E3 resid after each estimation. Quick R e v i e w — 8 1 Resid Hint 1: That was a very slight fib. Various other views make it easy to work with the residuals and to test hypotheses about the estimated coefficients.

In later chapters we tum to more advanced uses of least squares. And, predictably, we'll spend some time talking about forecasting. Getting t h e Most from Least Squares C h a p t e r 4. In EViews the basics of data transformation are quite simple. We begin this chapter with a look at standard algebraic manipulations. The chapter concludes with a look at some of EViews' more exotic data transformation functions. You can download the workfile "BasicAlgebra. Don't worry, if you accidentally specify a reserved name, EViews will squawk loudly. Some "In" to denote natural logarithms Since econometricians authors and "log" to denote base 10 should never have any use for base 10 we avoid this aesthetically displeasing use logarithms.

Hint: If you insist on using base 10 logarithms use the loglO function. And for the rebels amongst us, there's even a logx function for arbitrary base logarithms. Other functions common enough that the sign isn't needed include abs x for abso- lute value, exp x for e ' , a n d d x for the first difference i. EViews provides the expected pile of mathematical functions such as sin x , cos x , mean x , median x , max x , var x.

All the functions take a series as an argument and produce a series as a result, but note that for some functions, such as mean x , the output series holds the same value for every observation. Random Numbers EViews includes a wide variety of random number generators. See Statistical Functions. Three functions for generating random numbers that are worthy of special attention are rnd uniform 0,1 random numbers , nrnd standard normal random numbers , and rndseed set a "seed" for random number generation.

Officially, these functions are called "special expressions" rather than "functions. The sequence of generated numbers look random, but if you start the sequence from a particular value the numbers that follow will always be the same. Rndseed is used to pick a starting point for the sequence. Give rndseed an arbitrary integer argument. Every time you use the same arbitrary argument, you'll get the same sequence of pseudo-random numbers.

This lets you repeat an analysis involving random numbers and get the same results each time. There's a simple trick for each of these. The corresponding EViews commands using 2 and 4. The functions year, gquarter, Qmonth, and day return the year, quarter, month, and day of the month respectively, for each observation. In place of the "if statement" of many programming languages, EViews has the recode s, x, y function. If S is true for a particular observation, the value of Qrecode is X, otherwise the value is Y.

They're just what one would expect. Let's deconstruct this terribly complicated example.

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In other words, the addition is done for each observation at the same time. Hint: There's no Undo command. Moral: Save or SaveAs frequently so that if necessary you can load back a premistake version of the workfile. Some Typing Issues The command pane provides a scrollable record of commands you've typed. You can scroll back to see what you've done. The last command in the list will be entered in the command window. Repeat until the desired command is recalled for editing and execution. To close the history window without selecting a command, click elsewhere in the command window or press the Escape ESC key.

Use the mouse to grab the separator at the bottom of the command pane and move it up or down as you please. You may also drag the command window to anywhere inside the EViews frame. Press F4 to toggle docking, or click on the command window, depress the right-mouse button and select Toggle Command Docking. Similarly, you can save the command pane to disk default file name "command. Some folks have a taste for using menus rather than typing commands.

Using the menu and Generate Series by Equation dialog has the advantage that you can restrict the sample for this one operation without changing the workfile sample. More on samples in the next section. Sample 1 There's a small disadvantage in that, unlike when you type directly in the command pane, the equation doesn't appear in the command [ OK j [ Cancel j pane—so you're left without a visual record.

Deprecatory hint: Earlier versions of EViews used the command genr for what's now done with the distinct commands series, alpha, and frml. We'll meet the latter two commands shortly. Genr will still work even though the new commands are preferred. Computer folks say an old feature has been "deprecated" when it's been replaced by something new, but the old feature continues to work.

Numbers are entered in the usual way, " 1 2 3 " or in scientific notation, "1. Hint: If you aren't sure about the order of operations, extra parentheses do no harm. EViews also provides the logical operators and, or, and not. EViews evaluates arithmetic operators first, then comparisons, and finally logical operators. Hint: EViews generates a 1. Any number other than 0 counts as TRUE. Arithmetic and logical operations on NA always produce NA as the result, except for a few functions specially designed to translate NAs.

NA is neither true nor false; it's NA. The Lag Operator Reflecting its time series origins a couple of decades back, EViews takes the order of observations seriously. In standard mathematical notation, we typically use subscripts to identify one observation in a vector. When there isn't any risk of confusion, we sometimes drop the t. Since typing subscripts is a nuisance, lags and leads are specified in EViews by following a series name with the lag in parentheses. Logical perhaps, but useless. Q: Can I define my own function?

A: No. EViews calls these expressions auto-series. Durbin-Watson stat 3 1. You'll also see that EViews has expanded mean y to mean y, "1 1 0 0 ". We'll explain this expansion of the mean function in just a bit. This means that when using an auto-series it's important that there not be any spaces, unless the auto-series is enclosed in parentheses. If we had left a space before the minus sign, EViews would have thought we wanted Y to be the dependent variable and the first independent variable to be the negative of the mean of Y.

FRMLand Named Auto-Series Have a calculation that needs to be regularly redone as new data comes in, perhaps a calculation you do each month on freshly loaded data? Define a named auto-series for the calcula- tion.

When you load the fresh data, the named auto-series automatically reflects the new data. Since it's simple, we'll show you how to create a named auto-series and then talk about a couple of places where they're particularly useful. Creation of a named auto-series is identical to the creation of an ordinary series, except that you use the command frml rather than series. Simple Sample Says—95 Hint: frml is a contraction of "formula.

For an ordinary series, EViews computes the values of the series and stores them in the workfile. For a named auto-series, EViews stores the formula you provide. Whenever the auto-series is referenced, EViews recalculates its values on the fly. A minor advantage of the auto-series is that it saves storage, since the values are computed as needed rather than always taking up room in memory. The major advantage of named auto-series is that the values automatically update to reflect changes in values of series used in the formula. When we get to Chapter 8, "Forecasting," we'll learn about a special role that auto-series play in making forecasts.

Simple Sample Says As you've no doubt gathered by now, the statement "Operations are performed on an entire series at a time" is a hair short of being true. A sample is an EViews object which specifies which observations are to be included in operations. Effectively, you can think of a sample as a list of dates in a dated workfile, or a list of observation numbers in an undated workfile. Samples are used for operational control in two different places. The primary sample is the workfile sample. This sample provides the default control for all operations on series, by telling which observations to include.

Specific commands occasionally allow specification of a secondary sample which over-rides the workfile sample. When a workfile is first created, the sample includes all observations in the workfile. The current sample is shown in the upper pane of the workfile window. Here's the key concept in specifying samples: 9 6 — C h a p t e r 4. EViews is clever about interpreting sample pairs as beginning and ending dates. In a daily workfile, specifying ml means January 1 if it begins a sample pair and January 31 if it ends a sample pair.

As an example, smpl ml ml picks out ail the dates in January Not the related sample command, which we'll get to in a second. The dialog is initialized with the current sample for ease of editing. At least the author seems to do this regularly. The first part, the one we've just discussed, is a list of starting and ending date pairs. The second part begins with the word "if" and is followed by a logical condition. If no date pairs are given, all is substituted for the first part. The sample command creates a new object which stores a smpl. Every time the values in Y change, the set of points included in the sample may change.

For example, if you edit Y, changing an observation from to , that observation drops out of sample SI. Hint: In a sample "if clause," NA counts as false. Try deconstructing the following example. The second line sets the sample to include the entire workfile range. The trick is that the sample S2 is treated as either a 1 or a 0 in the last line. In some cases, the string defining the sample needs to be enclosed in quotes. We've already seen one such example. Following along from the preceding example, we could compute: smpl all 1 0 0 — C h a p t e r 4. That's it. Except that sometimes numbers aren't numbers, they're dates.

And sometimes the numbers or text you see aren't there at ail because you're looking at a value map instead. We'll start simply with numbers and text and then let the discussion get a teeny bit more complicated. Computer hint: Computer arithmetic is not perfect. On very rare occasion, this matters. Data hint: Data measurement is not perfect. On occasion, this matters a lot. Numbers and L e t t e r s — 1 0 1 Number Display By default, EViews displays numbers in a format that's pretty easy to read. Using Fixed decimal, you can pick how many places to show after the decimal.

For example, you might choose two places after the decimal for data measured in dollars and cents. Scientific notation sometimes called engineering notation puts one digit in front of the decimal and Fixed characters Significant digits Fixed decimal Scientific notation Percentage Fraction Period Day Day-Time Time includes a power of ten. For example, Percentage displays numbers as percentages, so 0. Fraction displays fractions rather than deci- 1 0 2 — C h a p t e r 4. This can be especially useful for financial data in which prices were required to be rounded. Remember that the Properties dii log changes the way the number is displayed, not the underlying value of the number.

Alpha series have two quirks that matter once in a great while. The first quirk is that the "not available" code for alpha series is the empty string, " " , rather than NA. Visually, it's difficult to tell the difference between an empty string and a string holding nothing but one or more spaces. They both have a blank look about them. The second quirk is that all alpha series in EViews share a maximum length. Strings with more than the maximum permitted characters are truncated.

By default, 40 characters are permitted. Spreadsheets Si Datastorage Date -epresentation Estimation options Si Programs File locations Advanced system options Maximum text length in Alpha series Maximum number of characters pier observation: Longer text assigned to an Alpha series will be truncated. Note: The memory used by an Alpha series is equal to the length of the longest text times the number of observations. And you should. Again, see Chapter 18, "Optional Ending. Unfortunately, spellings vary. The next comparison uses the function upper, which produces an uppercase version of a string, to pick up observations 1 through 5 by making the comparison using data converted to uppercase.

Both upper and lower case are changed to upper case before the comparison is made. EViews provides a comprehensive set of such functions. The first few hundred observations that I checked visually all had the same spelling and I didn't think to check further. In the meantime, the One-Way Tabulation Count 1 1 1 3 1 1 8 Hint: Typing an equal sign followed by an expression turns EViews into a nice desk calculator.

Results are shown in the status line at the bottom of the EViews window. Technically, EViews doesn't have a "date type. If ail you do with dates is look at them, there's no need to understand what's underneath the hood. This section is for users who want to be able to manipulate date data. Choose Day-Time to change the display to treat the numbers as dates showing both day and time. Notice that fractional parts of numbers correspond to a fraction of a day.

Thus 1. Two Day and Time formats are also shown by way of illustration. The function datestr x [, fmt] translates the number in X into a text string. The inverse of datestr is dateval, which converts a string into a date number. The file "SPClose Text excerpt. The format strings used for the last argument of Qmakedate are also discussed in the User's Guide. Statistical Functions Uniform and standard normal random number generators were described earlier in the chapter.

### Stanford Libraries

EViews supplies families of Statistical functions organized according to specific probability distributions. A function name beginning with " r " is a random number generator, a name beginning with " d " evaluates the probability density function also called the "pdf" , a name beginning with " c " evaluates the cumulative distribution function or "cdf" , and a name beginning with " q " gives the quantile, or inverse edf. In each case, the -sign and initial letter are followed by the name of the distribution.

As an example, the name used for the uniform distribution is "unif. This means that rnd is a synonym for runif 0,1. The second column gives the pdf for X, which for this distribution always equals 0. The third column gives the edf. A variety of probability distributions are discussed in the Command and Programming Refer- ence.

Probably the most commonly used are "norm," for standard normal, and "tdist," for Student's t. A wide set of data manipulation functions are available. In particular, the "expected" set of algebraic manipulations all work as expected. You can use numbers to conveniently represent dates. EViews also provides control over the Visual display of data. Value maps and display formats play a big role in data display. In particular, value maps let you see meaningful labels in place of arbitrary numerical codes.

It takes all four quotes to get one quote embedded in the string. Date Manipulation Functions Since dates are measured in days, you can add or subtract days by, unsurprisingly, adding or subtracting. See the User's Guide for information on "etc. But some of our returns accumulated over a weekend, and arguably represent three days' earnings.

The expression ' datediff tradedatenum, tradedatenum -l ,"dd" ' returns the number of days between observations. Usually there's one day between obser- What Are Your Values? Note two things about annualized returns. First, typical daily returns imply very large annual rates of change. In fact, the annual rates are implausible. Second, we've captured not only weekends, but also the January 17 th closing in honor of Dr.

EViews uses value maps to translate the appearance of codes into something more pleasant to read. The codes themselves are unchanged—it's their appearance that's improved. Values 0 or 1 in this case go on the left and the corresponding labels male, female go on the right. Two default mappings appear at the top: blanks and NAs are displayed unchanged.

Displayed FE now uses much friendlier labels. In fact, you can use the value labels in editing a series. Be sure the Display type menu is set to Default. EViews checks to see if Variable Coefficient Std. If so, the corresponding value is entered. If not, the new entry is used directly. D dependentvar Akaike info criterion Schwarz criterion Hannan-Quinn criter. Hint: Labels in the editor are case sensitive, e. Since a value map is just a translation from underlying code to appearance, you're free to use the same value map for multiple series.

It will cheerfully let you label the number " 0 " with the value map "1". For further discussion, see Origin Species. Picture This! Long term interest rates are usually, although not always, higher than short term interest rates. Long term interest rates also bounce around less than short term interest rates. This chapter introduces EViews graphies. EViews can produce a wide variety of graphs, and making a good looking graph is trivial. EViews also offers a sophisticated set of customization options, so making a great looking graph isn't too hard either. In this chapter we focus on the kinds of graphs you can make, leaving most of the discussion of custom settings to Chapter 6, "Intimacy With Graphie Objects.

Many-To-One Mappings Value maps can be used to group a range of codes for the purpose of display. Instead of a single value in the value map, enter a range in parentheses. Parentheses are used to specify open intervais, square brackets are used for closed intervais. So " -inf, 12]" is ail values less than or equal to For example, here's a fabulation of ED. That's why we see seven "dropout" rows on the right. You'U never need most of these functions, but the one you do need you'll need bad. Sometimes one wants a summary statistic computed by group.

This is accomplished with the Stats-By family of functions: meansby x, y , mediansby x, y , etc. See the Command and Programming Reference for more functions. These functions summarize the data in X according to the groups in Y. Optionally, a sample can be used as a third argument. For more detail, see the Command and Programming Reference.

This is a simple process that can be per- formed in a few seconds. The first time EViews is run on a new machine, you will be prompted to register your copy for that machine. On a Windows machine, you may choose to do so immediately, or you can put off registration to a later date, but you must register the copy within 14 days of installa- tion.

If you delay registration, you will be prompted to register the copy every time you launch EViews. The Mac version of EViews requires you to register your copy on the machine prior to using the program. The Student Version license restricts use to a single machine by a single user. If you have exceptional circumstances which require registration on additional machines, please contact our office.

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## Using EViews for Principles of Econometrics

The copy of EViews may be uninstalled and reinstalled on a registeredmachine, updated, or moved to a different directory without reregistering the copy for thatmachine. Note thatin this circumstance, reregistration on the machine will not count as an additional registra-tion. How Do I Register? Before starting the registration process, you should first locate the EViews serial number thatis provided with this guide or provided as part of your textbook bundle.

You may need toenter this number into EViews during the registration procedure. Next, you should launch EViews as described above. If the copy of EViews is not registered,EViews will display a warning dialog. Thedialog will inform you that EViews is notregistered for this machine and, if applica-ble, will indicate the number of additionaldays the unregistered copy will continueto run. You may choose to register in one of twoways: you may use the EViews auto regis-tration features by clicking on Auto Reg-istration Selecting either of the these two optionswill open a dialog prompting you for addi-tional information.

On a Windows machine, you can choose to delay software registration by clicking on the Iwill register later button. If you select this option and the grace period has not expired,EViews will close the dialog and will operate in the usual fashion. In this way you can useyour unregistered copy of EViews as though it were fully registered. If, however, the graceperiod has expired, your copy of EViews will not run until it is registered.

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Auto RegistrationIf your computer is connected to the Internet, auto registration makes registering EViews asnap. Simply click on the Auto Registration If you wish to continue with the auto registration process, make sure that the entries in the Serial and Name fields are filled in with the relevant information. When you click on the Register now button, EViews will attempt to contact one of our registration servers and, if successful, will transmit the information contained in the dialog to the server.

The server will process the information and the machine will be registered to run EViews. You should see a message indicating that regis- tration was completed successfully, along with the number of machines that have been regis- tered to the serial number. If you do not wish to continue with auto registra- tion, click on the Exit without registering but- ton and you will be returned to the main registration screen.

Note that there are some circumstances in which auto registration will fail. Obviously, auto registration will not work if the computer is not connected to the Internet. If registration fails, you should first verify that you have Internet access. Second, your computer may be behind a firewall which does not allow the required communication between your computer and our servers.

Furthermore, while unlikely, it is possible that all of our registration servers are temporarily unresponsive. If you continue to have problems with auto registration, you can choose to register manually as described in the next section, or you can contact us for assistance. Manual Registration If auto registration fails or if you prefer not to use the automatic registration features, you may elect to register manually. From the main registration page, click on Manual Registra- tion Registering EViews—9You must fill in the three fields inthe dialog: the 2-character serialnumber, your name, and a char-acter registration key you must firstobtain via web browser, phone, oremail.

EViews will help you by fill-ing in as many fields as possible. The easiest method of retrieving theregistration key is via web browser. Follow the links tothe registration page, and fill in theform. Enter your name, serial number, and the machine ID number as displayed in this reg-istration dialog into the form. Click on the Submit the form button. You will be providedwith the character registration key. Once you have obtained the key, return to the registration dialog in EViews.

Make certain that you have entered your name and serial number exactly as provided whenyou obtained the registration key, and enter the key in the registration key box. Click OK tofinish the registration process. Note that you should be able to copy-and-paste the registra-tion key information from your browser into the dialog edit fields. If all of the information is entered correctly, you will be informed that your registration iscomplete. If you do not have access to a working web browser, you can contact our office via email,phone, or standard post to obtain the key: IHS Global Inc.

We will then provide you with the character registration key. If you receive the key via email, you should be able to copy-and-paste the key information into the dialog edit fields. Frequently Asked Questions about Registration While the registration procedure should be straightforward, we understand that you may still have questions.

Your copy of EViews contains information about your registration status, as well as the product version and build date of the program. What could be wrong? The most common registration problem results from entering a name or serial number which does not match the key. You should make certain that the name and serial number both match those provided when obtaining a key. Note that while the name is not case-sensitive, it should otherwise be entered exactly as originally provided. If you still experience problems, do not hesitate to contact our office.

## E views 7 student version

Your copy of EViews contains the name in which it was first registered. This name cannot be changed. We do not anticipate that you will have problems registering your copy of EViews using one of the available methods auto-registration, manual using our web servers, or manual using email or phone. Please feel free to contact our office if you encoun- ter difficulties. Alter- nately, you may manually check for updates from within EViews at any time by selecting Check now Updating the Mac version may require you to download a file manually.